Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the purpose of four broad categories of standardized tests and how standardized tests are used by teachers.
  2. Explain the difference between criterion-referenced and norm-referenced tests.
  3. Explain the basic properties of a normal distribution.
  4. Describe four types of test scores and explain the advantages and limitations of each.
  5. Explain why validity and reliability are two important qualities of tests and why teachers need this information about tests to interpret test scores.
  6. Explain how accommodations improve the validity of test scores for students at risk.