Learning Objectives

  1. Explain how motivation changes from elementary through middle school and discuss what factors might account for this trend.
  2. Explain why task-contingent rewards tend to diminish intrinsic motivation and performance-contingent rewards tend to enhance intrinsic motivation.
  3. Discuss the conditions under which praise can enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and explain individual and developmental differences in the effectiveness of praise.
  4. Discuss methods teachers can use to create an intrinsically motivating learning environment.