Learning Objectives

  1. Define expectancies and values and explain how they influence students’ motivation.
  2. Compare and contrast the two types of mastery and performance goals.
  3. Identify attributions that enhance motivation and those that lower motivation.
  4. Explain the major developmental changes in motivation.
  5. Identify gender and ethnic differences in motivation.
  6. Explain how learned helplessness and anxiety affect students’ motivation to learn.
  7. Identify student-level and classroom-level strategies for enhancing motivation.