SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 1: Crawford, L. A., Novak, K. B., & Foston, A. K. (2016). Routine activities and delinquency: The significance of bonds to society and peer context. Crime & Delinquency, 64, 472–509.
Abstract: This article extends prior research on routine activities and youth deviance by focusing on a broader range of routine activity patterns (RAPs) and on how their effects are conditioned by bonds to society and peer context. As hypothesized, the RAPs with the most consistent effects on delinquency were those lowest, or highest, in both structure and visibility. However, the relationship between school-related activities and delinquency was complex and varied across levels of the moderators in unexpected ways, given the structure and visibility of this RAP. Other RAPs, including unstructured peer interaction, affected delinquency independent of adolescents’ social relations, suggesting that neither social bonding nor external social control, via peer group norms, shapes the effects of situationally based opportunities for deviance on adolescents’ behaviors in a consistent manner.
Journal Article 2: Ward, J. T., McConaghy, M., & Bennett, J. Z. (2017). Differential applicability of criminological theories to individuals? The case of learning vis-à-vis social control. Crime & Delinquency, 64, 510–541.
Abstract: The current study uses finite mixture models (FMMs) to examine whether competing theories—social learning and social control—are differentially applicable to individuals. Posterior probabilities reveal that 85% of individuals are most consistent with social learning theory (“learners”), whereas 15% are most consistent with social bonding theory (“bonders”). Relative to bonders, learners have significantly lower alcohol consumption and alcohol use risk—as denoted by learning and bonding variables. Results reveal generally stronger variable effects in the FMM as compared with the full-sample ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression, particularly for differential association and belief. OLS regressions among classified subsamples resulted in substantial gains in explained variance among learners but no improvements among bonders. Implications of differential applicability of theories for assessments of theoretical validity and policy development are discussed.