Answers to Test Yourself
(1) As mentioned in the chapter, Burger (2009) conducted a modified replication of this study in conjunction with ABC News’ Primetime show. To make the study ethical (and have it approved by his IRB), he made the following changes: (a) shock labels only went to 150 volts, at which point the confederate first objected verbally to the shocks; (b) participants were prescreened to rule out individuals who might be more greatly affected by the stressful conditions of the study; (c) right to withdraw from the study was emphasized (once verbally and twice in writing) to make this right more salient to participants; and (d) the experimenter was a clinical psychologist who immediately stopped the study at the first sign of excessive stress from the participant. (2) The consent form should include the following: a statement that the participant is being asked to volunteer for research, that his or her participation is voluntary and he or she has the right to withdraw at any time without penalty, the purpose and the procedures of the study, the risks (including possible stress) and benefits of the study, and information about whom the participants can contact if they have questions or concerns about the study. (3) The debriefing process is especially important for research that involves deception because the goal is that participants leave a study with as positive an impression of the research as possible. In addition, participants have the right to a thorough explanation of the study. Explaining why the deception was necessary is important in achieving these goals. (4) Answers will vary, but debriefing for this study should explain that the purpose of the study was to investigate natural physiological responses that occur to most individuals due to an invasion of personal space. It should also include information that the participant’s data will be kept completely confidential, that the participant has the right to withdraw from the study at any time (especially if an informed consent process did not take place before the study), and information about whom the participants may contact if they have further questions or are feeling uncomfortable about participating in the study. (5) c. (6) d. (7) c. (8) a. (9) beneficence. (10) plagiarism.