Learning Objectives

  1. Identify how the history of juvenile justice in the United States has been a series of distinct stages, some emphasizing reform and others focusing on punishment of young people.
  2. Discuss how the distinct historical shifts set the stage for the more recent “tough-on-crime” approach to juvenile justice and today’s reform-focused efforts.
  3. Identify the major state-level reforms occurring across the juvenile justice system today, and describe how and why today’s juvenile courts are at distinct and different stages of reform across the country.
  4. Explain how recent juvenile justice system changes have been impacted by federal policies.