Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Assess the contributions of the Harvard school in terms of William James’s pragmatism.
  • Demonstrate how the Clark school laid the foundations for the modern discipline of developmental psychology.
  • Evaluate the contributions of the Chicago school in terms of its strong emphasis on conscious mental activities as the core of psychology.
  • Appraise the contributions of the Columbia school, particularly in its focus on learning and education.