Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Outline Darwin’s theory of natural selection and the historical context in which he developed it.
  • Identify and evaluate the contributions Francis Galton made to the development of  psychology as an empirical science.
  • Explain the importance of psychophysics as a foundation for experimental psychology.
  • Discuss the work of the early experimental psychologists Hermann von Helmholtz, Christine Ladd-Franklin, and Hermann Ebbinghaus.