Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Appraise the contributions of Wilhelm Wundt to the establishment of psychology as an experimental science.
  • Evaluate the contributions of Wundt’s students, in particular James McKeen Cattell, Lightner Witmer, James Mark Baldwin, and Hugo Münsterberg.
  • Critique Edward Titchener’s structural approach to psychology.
  • Assess the contributions of Titchener’s students, in particular Margaret Washburn, Edwin Boring, J. P. Guilford, and June Etta Downey.