Learning Objectives

Examine the contributions Freud, Jung, and Adler made to psychology and the study of personality as we know it today.

  • Discuss the experiences that inspired Freud to formulate psychoanalysis.
  • Determine what dreams, jokes, and slips of the tongue have in common.
  • Compare Jung and Adler’s theories to Freud’s psychoanalysis.
  • Describe how projective tests are used.
  • Create an argument for Freud’s greatest legacy.

Contrast psychoanalysis with the cognitive social-learning approach.

  • Describe the principles of learning that laid the foundation for an alternative approach to personality.
  • Determine if you have an internal or external locus of control.
  • Connect self-efficacy to wellness.

Investigate whether or not an interaction exists between self-actualization and unconditional positive regard.

  • List the tenets of a humanistic approach to personality.
  • Connect Carl Rogers’s clinical observations to his theories about the self.
  • Understand how self-discrepancies affect our emotional well-being.
  • Describe how it feels to be self-actualized.

Identify the roles that nature and nurture are believed to play in trait development.

  • List the main goals in a trait approach to personality.
  • Define the Big Five.
  • Compare the strengths and weaknesses of personality tests.
  • Create an argument that supports the role of genetic factors in personality.
  • Juxtapose introverts with extraverts.