# Study Questions

### Chapter 11

In the late summer of 2008, a brief war broke out between the two countries of Russia and Georgia. Suppose you are a researcher interested in nationalistic attitudes in these two countries. You decided to use data from the World Values Survey, which is available at the following URL: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/. The data of interest are presented below on Russian respondents.

 Age Proud of Nationality? 15-29 30-49 50+ Very proud 738 132 279 Quite proud 940 227 388 Not very proud 523 133 238 Not proud at all 194 47 83
1. Identify the dependent variable.

2. What is the total sample size?

3. Calculate the values of the row and column marginals.

4. Calculate the expected frequencies for each cell.

5. Provide an interpretation of the expected cell frequencies. What do these quantities represent?

6. Following the example in Chapter 11, calculate the chi-square statistic.

7. Calculate the number of degrees of freedom for this particular example.

8. Using the table in the back of your textbook, what is the critical value for this chi-square test? (Note: use the .05 column)

9. On the basis of your work in Questions #6-8, conclude whether your results are statistically significant. Provide evidence for your conclusion.

10. Return to the original data. Exactly 940 persons between the ages of 15 and 29 indicated that they were "quite proud of their nationality. Suppose for the moment that only 840 persons between the ages of 15 and 29 were "quite proud" of their nationality. Keeping the other cells as they were originally, recalculate the value of the chi-square statistic and determine whether it is statistically significant.

11. Explain why adjusting only one cell in Question #10 resulted in a different conclusion.

12. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, how does this change the Chi-square distribution?

13. When two variables are not associated what can we say about their relationship?

In the late summer of 2008, a brief war broke out between the two countries of Russia and Georgia. Suppose you are a researcher interested in nationalistic attitudes in these two countries. You decided to use data from the World Values Survey, which is available at the following URL: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/. The data of interest are presented below on Georgian respondents.

 Age Proud of Nationality? 15-29 30-49 50+ Not at all proud 9 7 7 Not very proud 35 29 22 Quite proud 188 232 170 Very proud 404 485 393
1. Identify the independent variable.

2. Identify the dependent variable.

3. What is the total sample size?

4. Calculate the values of the row and column marginals.

5. Assume for the moment that both variables - age and national pride - are nominal level variables. If both were nominal level variables, which measure of association would be appropriate for these data?

6. Calculate the measure of association you identified in Question #18.

7. Explain why, in terms of calculating the values of E1 and E2, you arrived at the answer that you did in Question #19.

8. Of course, if we were to assume that age and national pride were nominal level variables, we would be mistaken. Identify the level of measurement for these two variables and suggest an appropriate measure of association to gauge the relationship between these two variables.

9. One measure of association that we might employ to assess the relationship between age and national pride is that of gamma, as it was introduced in Chapter 11. Begin by calculating the number of same ordered pairs.

10. Next, calculate the number of inverse order pairs.