Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter you will be able to:
9.1 Discuss standards of proof and the relevance of probable cause
9.2 Differentiate between arrests, custody, stops, and encounters
9.3 Discuss the importance and intent of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
9.4 Identify and discuss the situations in which a search warrant is not necessary in order to conduct a search
9.5 Differentiate between a frisk and a search incident to arrest
9.6 Discuss the impact of the exclusionary rule on criminal investigations and the criminal justice process
9.7 Evaluate the importance of the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
9.8 Identify the Miranda warnings and the circumstances under which the police must notify suspects of their Miranda rights
9.9 Assess the impact of the Miranda requirement