Learning Objectives

3.1 Identify and describe the three major types of neurons—their structure and function— and explain how the steps of neural transmission solve the problem of connecting world and brain.
3.2 Identify the two major parts of the nervous system and discuss how specialized structures in the brain initiate and control the components of behavior and mind.
3.3 Explain the major functions of the endocrine system, especially the need for long-term and extended communication, and contrast this communication system with neural transmission.
3.4 Assess how psychologists determine which features of our body and mind are adaptations—that is, products of natural selection—and the role that genetics plays in the process.
3.5 For each of the major sections of the chapter, summarize how biological processes solve critical problems of behavior and mind.