Learning Objectives

12.1 Distinguish between internal and external determinants of motivation, explain the differences between achievement and intrinsic motivation, and outline Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
12.2 Explain why eating is a biologically driven behavior, describe how internal and external factors combine to regulate body weight, and outline the main types of eating disorders.
12.3 Describe the internal and external factors that motivate sexual behavior, and identify some specifics of sexual motivation while considering evolutionary influences and sexual orientation.
12.4 Describe how and why emotions are powerful motivators of behavior by providing examples of three types of emotional experiences, and outline the differences among the three main theories of emotion.
12.5 For the major sections of the chapter, summarize how motivation and/or emotions are defined and measured.