Learning Objectives

15.1 Evaluate and compare biomedical therapies, including the various drug therapies, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery.
15.2 Discuss how insight therapies such as psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, and humanistic therapy enable a client to confront and challenge irrational beliefs.
15.3 Describe how behavioral therapies change unwanted or maladaptive behavior through the application of reward and punishment as well as counterconditioning techniques such as systematic desensitization.
15.4 Explain how psychologists use a control group to confirm the effectiveness of therapy, and describe the common factors that cut across all forms of psychotherapy.
15.5 For the major sections of the chapter, summarize how psychological disorders are treated and how therapy is evaluated.