SAGE Journal Articles

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SAGE Journal User Guide


Sleep Disturbances 

Reale, L., Guarnera, M., & Mazzone, L. (2013). The effects of sleep disturbance on school performance: A preliminary investigation of children attending elementary grades. School Psychology International, 35, 398-404.


Although research has been conducted on the impact of sleep disturbances in middle- and high-school populations, little research has been conducted looking at the effects on elementary-school children. This study, using children from first grade to fifth grade, asked parents to complete a questionnaire about their children’s sleep habits including questions about sleep-disturbances, night-time waking, and daytime sleepiness. The results suggest a negative correlation between sleep disorder symptoms and school performance. Knowing the frontal lobes are impacted by sleep deprivation and also play a key role in maintaining focus and attention, the authors discuss the negative impact of sleep disturbances on concentration in school. 

Discussion Questions:

  1. What are some of the factors that might be associated with sleep disturbances in children?
  2. This study found a correlation between sleep disturbances and grades in school. Knowing that correlation does not imply causation, what are other possible explanations for why we might see this relationship?
  3. In the discussion section, the authors indicate children with sleep disturbances might show more attention problems, one of the symptoms used to diagnose ADHD. Could there be a relationship between sleep disturbances and the increase in cases of ADHD?

Child Neglect 

Johnson-Reid, M., Chance, T., & Drake, B. (2007). Risk of death among children reported for nonfatal maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, 12, 68-95.


The goal of this article was to determine if there was an increased likelihood of death in low income children reported for maltreatment. Although there are several known indicators for fatal maltreatment (e.g., age of the child, age of the parent, maltreatment type), there has been little research looking at the effects of poverty on the likelihood of death following maltreatment reports. The authors compared death rates over a 7.5 year period between a sample of children who had been reported for abuse or neglect with a comparison group with no record of maltreatment. Although the overall death rates were quite low (less than 1%) there was a significantly higher number or deaths in the maltreated group than the comparison group. In addition, there was a higher number of deaths categorized as preventable in the maltreated group, suggesting there is a greater need for intervention.   

Discussion Questions:

  1. One of the limitations discussed in this study was an inability to determine if non-preventable deaths (e.g., cancer or SIDS) could have been prevented had adequate care been provided. Should parents who do not provide adequate medical care to a sick child be charged with homicide?
  2. The authors suggest the findings from this study could be used to help implement specific interventions with at risk groups. What types of interventions could be created for parents, social workers, or physicians?
  3. Knowing there is an increased likelihood of death, not just for the maltreated child, but for all children in the home, should all the children in a family be removed after the first report (substantiated or not) of maltreatment?