SAGE Journal Articles

Click on the following links. Please note these will open in a new window.

SAGE Journal User Guide


FAS: Brain & Behavior

Riley, E. P., & McGee, C. L. (2005). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An overview with emphasis on changes in brain and behavior. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230, 357-365.


Although we have known for decades that exposing a fetus to alcohol can have severe consequences for both physical and cognitive development, there are still thousands of babies being born every year with this condition. This article outlines the outward physical characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) as well as the impact alcohol has on the development of the brain.

Discussion Questions:

  1. The authors suggest one of the greatest risk factors for having a child with FAS is having at least one other child with FAS. Because this is a preventable condition, should women who have a child with FAS be required to participate in an educational program on the effects of drinking while pregnant before being allowed to take their baby home?
  2. Should doctors be required to contact Child Protective Services if they deliver a newborn though to have FAS?
  3. The authors describe findings regarding neuropsychological and behavioral changes in children with FAS; however, the findings are all from studies conducted in their laboratory. From a methodological standpoint, should we be concerned about the generalizability of these findings?

Managing HIV in Pregnancy

Duncan, S., Jones, R., McIntyre, M., Pilsniak, A., Trott, J., & Desmond, N. (2012). Managing HIV in pregnancy in a community-based sexual health clinic: A decade in review. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 23, 806-809.


This article describes the work done with HIV positive women during preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal at a clinic in the United Kingdom. The study indicates more women are becoming pregnant while on antiretroviral therapy and the number of vaginal deliveries has increased. The results show women who receive a combination antiretroviral therapy prior to conception or during their pregnancy were much less likely to deliver a baby with HIV. The authors suggest the method used at their clinic may be used as a model for other clinics, but caution the outcomes may vary depending on the location and accessibility of the clinic.

Discussion Questions:

  1. The authors suggest their findings may not be representative of other clinics. Aside from the location, which appears to have been centrally located, what other factors may impact the generalizability of these findings?
  2. Although treatment for HIV has come a long way – people are living longer with this disease – are there ethical considerations for helping women who are HIV positive to become pregnant?
  3. Of the 109 cases, only one baby was born with HIV suggesting the combination antiretroviral therapy works. The mother of the one baby born with HIV did not consistently take her medication. Knowing that the drug therapy works, should women who do not take their medication be referred to Child Protective Services for abuse or neglect to the fetus? What measures could be taken to ensure women who are HIV positive when pregnant continue to take their medication?

Postnatal Gender Dynamics

Koivunen, J. M., Rothaupt, J. W., & Wolfgram, S. M. (2009). Gender dynamics and role adjustment during the transition to parenthood: Current perspectives. The Family Journal, 17, 323-328.


The goal of this article was to describe some of the reasons why we seen an increase in marital dissatisfaction after the birth of the first child. The authors suggest women who have an expectation of an equal division of labor may show higher levels of dissatisfaction with their marriage. Suggestions for ways in which counselors can help couples, including communication patterns and support or intervention programs for fathers, may help prevent or lessen these effects during the babies first year.

Discussion Questions:

  1. One of the findings discussed in the article suggests women who were in a relationship where there was a more equal division of labor were more confident and self-assured, while women who had more responsibility had poorer mental health. Because we know correlation does not imply causation, what other explanations can you come up with to explain this finding?
  2. Greater marital satisfaction after the baby was born was found in couples who had stronger problem-solving skills in their marriage before conception. What would this suggest for couples who have a baby to try to ‘save’ their marriage?
  3. The authors suggest future research could evaluate factors such as cultural diversity, poverty, and sexual orientation. How might these factors impact marital satisfaction after the baby is born?