Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to:

2.1 Explain the evolution of corrections and correctional institutions.
2.2 Compare the different types of corrections used historically.
2.3 Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.
2.4 Identify the housing and punishments used in prisons and jails in colonial times.
2.5 Evaluate the two predominant prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.
2.6 Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of early prisons and why.
2.7 Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.
2.8 Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.
2.9 Describe the prevailing themes in correctional history.