Answers to Test Yourself

Below are answers to the chapter Test Yourself feature.

(1) (1a) Results, (1b) Method—Participants, (1c) Introduction and Discussion, (1d) Discussion, (1e) Method—Procedure. (2) Theory-driven hypotheses are made using predictions of a theory for a research study. Data-driven hypotheses are made by generalizing results from past studies to the results of a research study. (3) This is an inappropriate research question for psychological studies because it would be difficult to observe behaviors to answer this question. In other words, it is a question that cannot be answered by scientific methods because there are no clear behaviors that are seen as indicative of a soul. (4) A peer-reviewed journal article is typically an article written to describe a research study to inform other researchers what has previously been found in an area of psychology. Peer reviewed means that the article has been reviewed by experts in the area before publication to improve the article and make a recommendation about publication. An article in a popular magazine would likely provide a short summary of the study and may not accurately reflect the original article. Thus, magazine articles are considered secondary (rather than primary) sources. (5) A literature review is a review of previous research in an area to allow a researcher to conduct research that does not replicate what has previously been done and to allow researchers to make accurate predictions about a study’s outcome. (6)6a) Behavior variable: conscientiousness; Causal variable: gender (men and women). (6b) Behavior variable: sleep quality; Causal variable: waking up at the same time. (6c) Behavior variable: violent behavior; Causal variable: ostracism. (6d) Behavior variable: eyewitness memory; Causal variable: age (children and adults). (6e) Behavior variable: perceiving the size of an opening; Causal variable: using crutches. (7) PsycINFO will yield peer-reviewed articles about research. Google will yield other types of information (such as popular magazine articles) that are considered secondary sources that may not be reliable. (8) abstract, (9) descriptive (10) The primary difference between an empirical article and a book chapter or review article is that the empirical article will describe the details (purpose, method, results, conclusions) of a single study (or set of studies), whereas book chapters and review articles summarize and organize a large set of studies by many researchers. (11) (11a) Introduction and Discussion sections, (11b) Results section, (11c) Method section, Materials subsection, (11d) Method section, Participants subsection, (11e) any of the major sections can contain a citation: Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion—the Abstract may also contain citations, (11f) Method section, Procedure subsection.(12) only (b) and (e) are true. (13)  a and c are correct.(14) Correct order: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Participants, Procedure, Results, Discussion, References.(15) b (16) An oral presentation provides an oral description of the major sections of a research report, typically with visual aids such as PowerPoint. There is often a time limit for oral presentations. Poster presentations provide a visual report of a research study, including each major section of the report. Authors are typically on site to provide oral summaries or more detailed information about the study the poster describes. (17) Method  (18) Results