SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Gopin, C. B, Berwid, O., Marks, D. J., Mlodnicka, A., & MlodnickaHalperin, J. M. (2013). ADHD preschoolers with and without ODD: Do they act differently depending on degree of task engagement/reward? Journal of Attention Disorders, 17, 608–619.

Abstract: Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple RT (SRT) and reinforced SRT (SRTr). Data were analyzed using two-way (Group × Condition) mixed ANOVAs and followed-up using pairwise comparisons. Results: RTs were significantly shorter and less variable during the SRTr than the SRT condition. A significant Group x Condition interaction was observed for RTSD (F = 3.38, p < .05); post hoc analyses indicated that the RTSD of the ADHD + ODD group was significantly more variable than that of the TD group during the SRT condition (F = 4.81, p < .05). However, their RTSD was statistically indistinguishable from the other groups during the SRTr condition. Conclusion: Preschoolers who are oppositional/defiant and hyperactive are the most responsive to feedback/reward.

Journal Article 2: Wang, Y., Thomas, J., Weissgerber, S. C., & Kazemini, S., Ul-Haq, I., & Quadflieg, S. (2015). The headscarf effect revisited: Further evidence for a culture-based internal face processing advantagePerception, 44, 328–336.

Abstract: Encoding the internal features of unfamiliar faces poses a perceptual challenge that occasionally results in face recognition errors. Extensive experience with faces framed by a headscarf may, however, enhance perceivers’ ability to process internal facial information. To examine this claim empirically, participants in the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America completed a standard part--whole face recognition task. Accuracy on the task was examined using a 2 (perceiver culture: Emirati vs American) X 2 (face race: Arab vs white) X 2 (probe type: part vs whole) x 3 (probe feature: eyes vs nose vs mouth) mixed-measures analysis of variance. As predicted, Emiratis outperformed Americans on the administered task. Although their recognition advantage occurred regardless of probe type, it was most pronounced for Arab faces and for trials that captured the processing of nose or mouth information. The findings demonstrate that culture-based experiences hone perceivers' face processing skills.