Learning Objectives

8.1 Describe young children’s sense of initiative, self-concept, and self-esteem.

8.2 Discuss the development of emotional understanding, regulation, and empathy in early childhood.

8.3 Summarize perspectives on moral development and behavior, including prosocial behavior.

8.4 Compare styles of parenting and discipline and their associations with child outcomes.

8.5 Examine influences on gender typing and discuss ways of reducing gender stereotyping.

8.6 Discuss the range of forms play takes in early childhood and its influence on social development and relationships.