Learning Objectives

8.1 Compare and contrast critical and mainstream theory.

8.2 Discuss labeling theory and the concept of secondary deviance.

8.3 Summarize the basic elements of conflict criminology.

8.4 Compare feminist criminology with mainstream criminology.

8.5 Identify the emerging perspectives in new critical criminology.

8.6 Describe radical criminology’s view on capitalism and crime.

8.7 Provide examples of how theories of crime can be integrated.

8.8 Describe the importance of crime typologies and the influence they have on criminology.

8.9 Evaluate the limitations of theoretical range and criminological explanations.

8.10 Identify the connections between sociological critical and integrated theories on crime policies.