SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: De Li, S., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2003). The gendered effects of adult social bonds on the criminal activities of probationers. Criminal Justice Review, 28, 278-298.

Abstract: The central question addressed in this article is whether the effects of adult social bonds vary by gender. Contrary to the social control theory, it is argued here that male offenders and female offenders do not respond to the controlling effect of adult social bonds in the same way, because they possess different levels of antisocial tendencies. The authors constructed a two-level hierarchical model using monthly data collected from 125 probationers to evaluate the effects of social bonds and drug use on criminal activities. The findings showed complex patterns. For male probationers, social bonds operated as a strong inhibitor of crime while drug use acted as a moderate facilitator of criminal activities. For female probationers, both social bonds and drug use operated as strong facilitators of criminal behavior. The results support the argument that adult social bonds affect male crime and female crime differently. Implications are presented for future research on adult social bonds as means of crime prevention and control, especially as they are related to gendered patterns of deviant association and lifestyle.