Learning Objectives

4.1 Explain why the conceptualization of terms we use in our research is important
4.2 Discuss the relationship between conceptualization and operationalization
4.3 Illustrate key forms of measurement, including surveys, observations, unobtrusive measures, and published data
4.4 Produce examples of the four levels of measurement for a given concept
4.5 Compare the different approaches to measurement validity and reliability and recommend ways to improve validity and reliability