On completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to do the following:
LO 9.1: Identify the grand challenges of our time, as enumerated in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
LO 9.2: Recognize that grand challenges involve difficult ethical choices and, therefore, addressing them requires ethical decision-making tools such as those presented in this book.
LO 9.3: Recognize that addressing grand challenges requires innovation and that businesses will innovate more to address grand challenges if governments establish frameworks that encourage such innovation.
LO 9.4: Identify existing innovative business approaches to addressing grand challenges, including shared value, base of the pyramid, and industry-transforming innovation.