Learning Objectives

8.1 What is race-based slavery, and how did it develop in the United States?

8.2 What forms of resilience did Black groups use to survive the institution of slavery?

8.3 What were the benefits and backlashes from Reconstruction and the Great Migration?

8.4 Why were Black organizations, such as churches and empowerment groups, important for African Americans?

8.5 How do the results and reputation of the civil rights and Black Power movements compare to one another?

8.6 How have Black immigrants influenced U.S. society?

8.7 What are some persistent problems that impact Black Americans today?