Learning Objectives

  1. Appraise how Russia's rulers created an on again, off again environment for scientific progress in the late 19th century.
  2. Examine how language and transportation technologies (e.g., steamships and trains) made it difficult for scientific ideas to disseminate easily from Russia.
  3. Explain how Pavlov created the world's first “big science” project.
  4. Demonstrate how classical conditioning made it possible to “ask” animals questions about their sensory capacities.
  5. Summarize Watson's position on the breadth of topics amenable to investigation through a behavioral approach.
  6. Predict how future psychologists might deal with the issue of instincts.