SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 3.1
Citation: Norris, R. J., Bonventure, C. L., Redlich, A. D., Acker, J. R., & Lowe, C. (2017). Preventing wrongful convictions: An analysis of state investigation reforms. Criminal Justice Policy Review. doi:10.1177/0887403416687359
Abstract: As more innocents are exonerated and researchers learn more about the causes of wrongful convictions, criminal justice practices have been altered to reduce the number of erroneous convictions, although reforms have varied widely in scope and substance throughout the nation. In this article, we provide an analysis of state-level investigative reforms important to the production of wrongful convictions as of mid-2016. Specifically, we collect and describe reform efforts in three investigatory areas: eyewitness identification, forensics, and interrogations. We then discuss wrongful conviction reforms and the innocence movement more generally, focusing on the importance of continued research into wrongful convictions as a critical policy issue in criminal justice.
Journal Article 3.2
Citation: Emeno, K., Bennell, C., Snook, B., & Taylor, P. (2015). Geographic profiling survey: A preliminary examination of geographic profilers’ views and experiences. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 18, 3–12.
Abstract: Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender’s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure and how it is used. To examine these issues, a survey was distributed internationally to police professionals who have contributed GP advice to police investigations. The survey consisted of questions designed to assess: (a) how geographic profiles are constructed, (b) the perceived usefulness and accuracy of GP, (c) whether core GP conditions are examined before profiles are constructed, and (d) the types of cases in which GP is used. The results suggest that geographic profiles are commonly used in operational settings for a wide range of crime types. This appears to be true even when GP conditions are violated. In addition, general perceptions of GP accuracy and usefulness appear to be high, but this is particularly true for respondents who use computerized GP systems (compared with spatial distribution strategies, such as centroids, or educated guesses). Computerized GP systems are also the most commonly used GP approach among our respondents, especially for those who have received formal training in GP. Although preliminary in nature, the results from this study help enhance understanding of how GP is used in police investigations around the world, and under what conditions. The survey also provides directions for future research.