SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 8.1: Smith, A. E., & Monaghan, Karen R. (2011). Some ceilings have more cracks: representative bureaucracy in federal regulatory agencies. The American Review of Public Administration, 43(1), 50–71.

Abstract: In recent decades, representative bureaucracy has been a core area of interest, both in theory and in practice, in public administration. The focus on representative bureaucracy is important because the characteristics of bureaucrats influence the nature, scope, and implementation of public policies. Integrating management literature on men and women in leadership with existing work on representative bureaucracy, this study constructed a new data set examining the distribution of women in leadership in 118 U.S. federal regulatory organizations. We find that women remain underrepresented in federal regulatory agency leadership but not in the same magnitude as in political representation and private organization leadership. Specifically, women are expected to get into leadership positions in organizations working in “feminine” policy areas and where a woman holds the top level of leadership. In addition, the proportion of women in upper-level leadership positions is expected to increase in agencies with a higher likelihood of failure when such agencies are less visible.

Journal Article 8.2: Kim, S. Y., & Fernandez, S. (2017). Employee Empowerment and Turnover Intention in the U.S. Federal Bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration47(1), 4–22.

Abstract: Reducing employee turnover in the U.S. federal government has been an ongoing goal of policymakers in Washington, D.C. A large literature emerging during the last three decades has identified a range of antecedents of turnover intention and actual turnover, including individual characteristics, employee attitudes, organizational conditions, and managerial practices. Little research has been done, however, on the impact of employee empowerment as a multifaceted managerial approach on turnover options in the public sector. This study proposes a theoretical model of the direct and indirect effects of employee empowerment on turnover intention in the U.S. federal bureaucracy. The model is tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) and data from the U.S. Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS). The empirical results support the hypothesized model. Employee empowerment has negative direct and indirect effects on turnover intention. In addition, the negative effect is greater on the likelihood of intention to leave to another federal agency and intention to leave the federal government than on the intention to retire.

Journal Article 8.3: Park, S. M., Joaquin, M. E., Min, K. R., & Ugaddan, R. G. (2018). Do Reform Values Matter? Federal Worker Satisfaction and Turnover Intention at the Dawn of the Trump Presidency. The American Review of Public Administration48(6), 506–521.

Abstract: With heightened bureaucratic bashing and the planned reorganization of the U.S. federal bureaucracy, hiring is going to be difficult, but what could make those already in the service satisfied and willing to stay in their jobs? How could flexible work systems have an impact on worker job satisfaction and turnover intention? Using hierarchical linear modeling, we explore the impact of alternative work systems on employee job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of values underlying managerial reforms. Flexible work systems are found to have a positive impact moderated by the kind of values promoted by particular reforms. A discussion on the main findings, research, and practical implications for public human resource management theory and practice is provided.

Journal Article 8.4: Lee, D., & Van Ryzin, G. G. (2018). Bureaucratic reputation in the eyes of citizens: an analysis of US federal agencies. International Review of Administrative Sciences.

Abstract: Bureaucratic reputation has been defined as a set of beliefs about a public organization’s capacities, roles, and obligations that are embedded in a network of multiple audiences (Carpenter, 2010). Although one of the most important audiences in a democracy is the citizenry, very little empirical investigation has looked at citizens’ beliefs about specific government agencies and what individual or contextual factors influence these beliefs. To examine this question, this study analyzes data from a unique 2013 Pew Political Survey that represents the responses of 1500 US citizens on the reputations of 12 federal agencies. Results demonstrate that citizens view the reputations of some agencies (such as the CDC and NASA) much more favorably than other agencies (such as the IRS and the Department of Education). In regression analyses, findings suggest that the reputation of federal agencies varies according to citizens’ general level of trust in government and their political ideology, but that demographic, socioeconomic and regional differences also shape reputation judgments. These findings provide some preliminary empirical understanding of the reputation of government agencies in the eyes of the citizenry and may have implications for agencies seeking to manage their relationship with the public.