After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
6.1 Distinguish between a causal and spurious relationship.
6.2 Understand the three necessary components in a causal relationship.
6.3 Illustrate how the classical randomized experiment demonstrates how a research design can be used to verify a causal relationship.
6.4 Understand internal and external validity.
6.5 Understand the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research design.
6.6 Understand the difference between effects-of-causes and causes-of-effects approaches to investigating causal relationships.