Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

6.1 Distinguish between a causal and spurious relationship.

6.2 Understand the three necessary components in a causal relationship.

6.3 Illustrate how the classical randomized experiment demonstrates how a research design can be used to verify a causal relationship.

6.4 Understand internal and external validity.

6.5 Understand the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research design.

6.6 Understand the difference between effects-of-causes and causes-of-effects approaches to investigating causal relationships.