Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics
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Introductory Questions
Click on the question to reveal the answer.
Twentyone cats were given 300g of tuna each. The time in seconds was measured until they had eaten all of the tuna:
16, 18, 18, 22, 22, 23, 23, 24, 26, 29, 32, 34, 34, 36, 36, 42, 43, 46, 46, 49, 57
 Compute the median.
 Compute the lower quartile.
 Compute the upper quartile.
 Compute the interquartile range.
Answer choices
 32 seconds
 22.5 seconds
 42.5 seconds
 20 seconds
Answer: 32 seconds
An experimenter measured 30 children’s IQ. He then rankordered the children and assigned them a score from 30 (most intelligent) to 1 (least intelligent) to create a new variable. Does this new variable consist of:
Answer choices
 Nominal data
 Interval data
 Ratio data
 Ordinal data
Answer: Ordinal data
When items on a questionnaire appear to correspond to the construct that the questionnaire claims to measure it is said to have:
Answer choices
 Factorial validity
 Ecological validity
 Content validity
 Criterion validity
Answer: Content validity
Variation due to some genuine effect is known as:
Answer choices
 Unsystematic variation
 Systematic variation
 Homogeneous variance
 Residual variance
Answer: Systematic variation
The degree to which a statistical model represents the data collected is known as the:
Answer choices
 Fit
 Homogeneity
 Reliability
 Validity
Answer: Fit
Ordinal level data are characterized by:
Answer choices
 Equal intervals between each adjacent score.
 A fixed zero.
 Data that can be meaningfully arranged by order of magnitude.
 None of the above.
Answer: Data that can be meaningfully arranged by order of magnitude
For what is the ‘variable view’ in IBM SPSS’s data editor used?
Answer choices
 Entering data.
 Writing syntax.
 Viewing output from data analysis.
 Defining characteristics of variables.
Answer: Defining characteristics of variables
Which of the following is the least affected by outliers?
Answer choices
 The range
 The mean
 The median
 The standard deviation
Answer: The median
What symbol represents the test statistic for the Mann–Whitney test?
Answer choices
 Ws
 T
 U
 H
Answer: U
The covariance is:
Answer choices
 All of these.
 A measure of the strength of relationship between two variables.
 Dependent on the units of measurement of the variables.
 An unstandardized version of the correlation coefficient.
Answer: All of these
R2 is known as the:
Answer choices
 Coefficient of determination.
 Multiple correlation coefficient.
 Partial correlation coefficient.
 Semipartial correlation coefficient.
Answer: Coefficient of determination
ANCOVA is:
Answer choices
 Used to correct for unmeasured variables that could affect the outcome variable.
 Is a method of portioning the results of ANOVAs to investigate where differences between independent variables lie.
 Is a robust version of ANOVA.
 An extension of ANOVA that partials out the effect of other measured variables.
Answer: An extension of ANOVA that partials out the effect of other measured variables
How many dependent variables does a twoway ANOVA have?
Answer choices
 One
 Two
 Three
 Four
Answer: One
A researcher measured the same group of people’s physiological reactions while watching horror films and compared them to when watching comedy films, and a documentary about wildlife. The resulting data were normally distributed. What test should be used to analyse the data?
Answer choices
 Independent analysis of variance
 Repeatedmeasures analysis of variance
 Kruskal–Wallis test
 Friedman’s ANOVA
Answer: Repeatedmeasures analysis of variance
Which of the following statements about MANOVA is correct?
Answer choices
 MANOVA is appropriate for data that have one or more dependent variables and more than two independent variables.
 MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and one or more independent variables.
 MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and only one independent variable.
 MANOVA is appropriate for data with only one dependent variable and more than three independent variables.
Answer: MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and one or more independent variables.
A Cronbach’s alpha value of .85 for a questionnaire means that:
Answer choices
 The questionnaire is valid.
 The questionnaire has good reliability.
 The questionnaire has too few items.

The questionnaire would produce different scores if used on the same people at two different points in time.
Answer: The questionnaire has good reliability.
A researcher asked 933 people what their favourite type of TV programme was: news, documentary, soap or sports. They could only choose one answer. As such, the researcher had the number of people who chose each category of programme. How should she analyse these data?
Answer choices
 ttest
 Oneway analysis of variance
 Chisquare test
 Regression
Answer: Chisquare test
Chisquare is used to analyse:
Answer choices
 Scores
 Ranks
 Frequencies
 Any of these
Answer: Frequencies
Using a goodnessoffit test, we can assess whether a set of obtained frequencies differ from a set of _______ frequencies:
Answer choices
 Mean
 Actual
 Predicted
 Expected
Answer: Expected
Logistic regression is used when you want to:
Answer choices
 Predict a dichotomous variable from continuous or dichotomous variables.
 Predict a continuous variable from dichotomous variables.
 Predict any categorical variable from several other categorical variables.
 Predict a continuous variable from dichotomous or continuous variables.
Answer: Predict a dichotomous variable from continuous or dichotomous variables
In binary logistic regression:
Answer choices
 The dependent variable is continuous.
 The dependent variable is divided into two equal subcategories.
 The dependent variable consists of two categories.
 There is no dependent variable.