## Introductory Questions

Click on the question to reveal the answer.

Twenty-one cats were given 300g of tuna each. The time in seconds was measured until they had eaten all of the tuna:

16, 18, 18, 22, 22, 23, 23, 24, 26, 29, 32, 34, 34, 36, 36, 42, 43, 46, 46, 49, 57

• Compute the median.
• Compute the lower quartile.
• Compute the upper quartile.
• Compute the interquartile range.

1. 32 seconds
2. 22.5 seconds
3. 42.5 seconds
4. 20 seconds

An experimenter measured 30 children’s IQ. He then rank-ordered the children and assigned them a score from 30 (most intelligent) to 1 (least intelligent) to create a new variable. Does this new variable consist of:

1. Nominal data
2. Interval data
3. Ratio data
4. Ordinal data

When items on a questionnaire appear to correspond to the construct that the questionnaire claims to measure it is said to have:

1. Factorial validity
2. Ecological validity
3. Content validity
4. Criterion validity

Variation due to some genuine effect is known as:

1. Unsystematic variation
2. Systematic variation
3. Homogeneous variance
4. Residual variance

The degree to which a statistical model represents the data collected is known as the:

1. Fit
2. Homogeneity
3. Reliability
4. Validity

Ordinal level data are characterized by:

1. Equal intervals between each adjacent score.
2. A fixed zero.
3. Data that can be meaningfully arranged by order of magnitude.
4. None of the above.

#### Answer: Data that can be meaningfully arranged by order of magnitude

For what is the ‘variable view’ in IBM SPSS’s data editor used?

1. Entering data.
2. Writing syntax.
3. Viewing output from data analysis.
4. Defining characteristics of variables.

#### Answer: Defining characteristics of variables

Which of the following is the least affected by outliers?

1. The range
2. The mean
3. The median
4. The standard deviation

What symbol represents the test statistic for the Mann–Whitney test?

1. Ws
2. T
3. U
4. H

The covariance is:

1. All of these.
2. A measure of the strength of relationship between two variables.
3. Dependent on the units of measurement of the variables.
4. An unstandardized version of the correlation coefficient.

R2 is known as the:

1. Coefficient of determination.
2. Multiple correlation coefficient.
3. Partial correlation coefficient.
4. Semi-partial correlation coefficient.

ANCOVA is:

1. Used to correct for unmeasured variables that could affect the outcome variable.
2. Is a method of portioning the results of ANOVAs to investigate where differences between independent variables lie.
3. Is a robust version of ANOVA.
4. An extension of ANOVA that partials out the effect of other measured variables.

#### Answer: An extension of ANOVA that partials out the effect of other measured variables

How many dependent variables does a two-way ANOVA have?

1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four

A researcher measured the same group of people’s physiological reactions while watching horror films and compared them to when watching comedy films, and a documentary about wildlife. The resulting data were normally distributed. What test should be used to analyse the data?

1. Independent analysis of variance
2. Repeated-measures analysis of variance
3. Kruskal–Wallis test
4. Friedman’s ANOVA

#### Answer: Repeated-measures analysis of variance

Which of the following statements about MANOVA is correct?

1. MANOVA is appropriate for data that have one or more dependent variables and more than two independent variables.
2. MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and one or more independent variables.
3. MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and only one independent variable.
4. MANOVA is appropriate for data with only one dependent variable and more than three independent variables.

#### Answer: MANOVA is appropriate for data with two or more dependent variables and one or more independent variables.

A Cronbach’s alpha value of .85 for a questionnaire means that:

1. The questionnaire is valid.
2. The questionnaire has good reliability.
3. The questionnaire has too few items.
4. The questionnaire would produce different scores if used on the same people at two different points in time.

#### Answer: The questionnaire has good reliability.

A researcher asked 933 people what their favourite type of TV programme was: news, documentary, soap or sports. They could only choose one answer. As such, the researcher had the number of people who chose each category of programme. How should she analyse these data?

1. t-test
2. One-way analysis of variance
3. Chi-square test
4. Regression

Chi-square is used to analyse:

1. Scores
2. Ranks
3. Frequencies
4. Any of these

Using a goodness-of-fit test, we can assess whether a set of obtained frequencies differ from a set of _______ frequencies:

1. Mean
2. Actual
3. Predicted
4. Expected

Logistic regression is used when you want to:

1. Predict a dichotomous variable from continuous or dichotomous variables.
2. Predict a continuous variable from dichotomous variables.
3. Predict any categorical variable from several other categorical variables.
4. Predict a continuous variable from dichotomous or continuous variables.

#### Answer: Predict a dichotomous variable from continuous or dichotomous variables

In binary logistic regression: