SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1: Hoover, L. (2005). From police administration to police science: The development of a police academic establishment in the United States. Police Quarterly, 8(1), 8–22. doi: 10.1177/1098611104267324

Summary: The police academic establishment began in the United States with an emphasis on the principles approach to administration as defined by O. W. Wilson. It evolved with the field over the last 50 years. Each decade has lent distinctive characteristics to its development. Four changes are necessary for its evolution into a genuine science of policing: launching of systematic strategy research; separation of evaluation of strategy from political or social advocacy; inculcation of respect for police scientists who have preceded—particularly O. W. Wilson; and adoption of an open-minded, scientifically neutral approach to assessing what works in policing. The physical sciences provide an appropriate model in this respect.

Questions to Consider:

  1. Where were the first academic degree programs in police administration created?
  2. Why were the 1960s such a significant decade for policing?
  3. What variables accounted for the drop in crime in the 1990s?


Article 2: Lee, J. V. (2010). Policing after 9/11: Community policing in an age of homeland security. Police Quarterly, 13(4), 347–366. doi: 10.1177/1098611110384083

Summary: This article examines the relevance of community-oriented policing in an age of increased prioritization of homeland security planning among U.S. police departments. The current study utilizes 2003 multiwave survey data drawn from a random sample of 281 municipal police departments serving populations of 25,000+ in 47 states. Ordered logistic regression revealed police departments that give higher prioritization to homeland security planning (e.g., hazard mitigation) are associated with less officers devoted solely to community policing and smaller or static departmental budgets. Homeland security planning was also positively associated with community policing programs and activities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What led to the shift of federal funding away from community-oriented policing in the beginning of the 21st century? Where did the funding go?
  2. Can homeland security fit within community oriented policing? If so, how?
  3. What are the most influential factors in explaining police organizational change?