SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1.1

Karppi, T. (2018). “The computer said do”: On the ethics, effectiveness, and cultural techniques of predictive policing. Social Media and Society, 4(2).

In this paper, I use The New York Times’ debate titled, “Can predictive policing be ethical and effective?” to examine what are seen as the key operations of predictive policing and what impacts they might have in our current culture and society. The debate is substantially focused on the ethics and effectiveness of the computational aspects of predictive policing including the use of data and algorithms to predict individual behavior or to identify hot spots where crimes might happen. The debate illustrates both the benefits and the problems of using these techniques, and makes a strong stance in favor of human control and governance over predictive policing. Cultural techniques in the paper is used as a framework to discuss human agency and further elaborate how predictive policing is based on operations, which have ethical, epistemological, and social consequences.

Article 1.2

Schneider, J. L. (2006). Professional codes of ethics: Their role and implications for international research. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 22(2), 173-192.

International criminological research is growing both in terms of prominence and occurrence. Boundaries for conducting research are expanding well beyond our respective national borders. Foreign nationals or visiting fellows—who venture outside their home countries to compare or contrast existing crime trends, events, policies, or practices—are faced with a myriad of challenges. One methodological challenge is to conduct research within ethical constructs. However, the issue becomes “To which country’s code of practice or ethical standards does the international researcher adhere?” The purpose of this article is to explore the issue of doing ethical international research with the aim of offering pragmatic suggestions on how to proceed with international studies that can withstand ethical scrutiny.

Article 1.3

Haag, A. M. (2006). Ethical dilemmas faced by correctional psychologists in Canada. Criminal Justice and Behavior33(1), 93-109.

There are numerous ethical issues that correctional psychologists in Canada face on a regular basis. This article analyzes the following ethical issues as they relate to the adult correctional context in Canada: (a) who is the client, (b) confidentiality, (c) protection of psychological records, (d) informed consent, (e) assessment, (f) corroboration, (g) refusal of services, (h) nondiscrimination, (i) competence, (j) knowledge of legal structure, (k) accuracy and honesty, (l) misuses of psychological information, and (m) multiple relationships. This article is organized around three of the four principles of the Canadian Psychological Association’s ethics guide.

Article 1.4

Weisburd, D. (2003). Ethical practice and evaluation of interventions in crime and justice. Evaluation Review, 27(3), 336-354.

In considering the ethical dilemmas associated with randomized experiments, scholars ordinarily focus on the ways in which randomization of treatments or interventions violates accepted norms of conduct of social science research more generally or evaluation of crime and justice questions more specifically. The weight of ethical judgment is thus put on experimental research to justify meeting ethical standards. In this article, it is argued that just the opposite should be true, and that in fact there is a moral imperative for the conduct of randomized experiments in crime and justice. That imperative develops from our professional obligation to provide valid answers to questions about the effectiveness of treatments, practices, and programs. It is supported by a statistical argument that makes randomized experiments the preferred method for ruling out alternative causes of the outcomes observed. Common objections to experimentation are reviewed and found overall to relate more to the failure to institutionalize experimentation than to any inherent limitations in the experimental method and its application in crime and justice settings. It is argued that the failure of crime and justice practitioners, funders, and evaluators to develop a comprehensive infrastructure for experimental evaluation represents a serious violation of professional standards.