Learning Objectives

By reading this chapter, you will be able to do the following:

13.1 Consider the importance of presidential character in shaping the conduct and effectiveness of an administration.

13.2 Describe the powers of the presidency as defined in the Constitution and the constitutional limitations placed on those powers.

13.3 Discuss institutional and informal sources of and influences on presidential power.

13.4 Understand how presidents have tested the limits of executive power during wartime and other crises.

13.5 Evaluate the tools that presidents use to further expand their power.