Learning Objectives

Read pages 99-124 in your textbook.

After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

4.1 Convert raw scores to Z scores to get measures of the difference of individual values from the mean in units of standard deviation

4.2 Identify unusual values and outliers using Z scores

4.3 Calculate Z scores from populations or samples

4.4 Explain how converting raw scores to Z scores does not change the shape of the distribution

4.5 Apply the empirical rule to connect Z scores with probabilities in special cases