SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 3.1: Colwell, C., Memmott, J., & Meeker-Miller, A. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction. International Journal of Music Education. 32(3): 333-345.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6–20 months) and to enhance parent– child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language Alone, and 3) Music and Sign Language. All interventions were play-based. Each group was a 4-week program that met weekly for 45 minutes. Each session was divided into four segments: music and/or signs (book), centers (vestibular, tactile, hands-on activities), music and/or sign review, and goodbye lullaby/activity. Data reported in the results do not support the use of music and/or sign language but trends were discussed in addition to parent’s perceptions of participation in the program.

Learning Objective: 3.4 Analyze the role of play in infancy and toddlerhood.


Journal Article 3.2: Fenerci Babcock, R.L. & DePrince, A.P. (2017). Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma: Maternal Trauma–Related Cognitions and Toddler Symptoms. Child Maltreatment, 23(2):  126 – 136.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to elucidate possible cognitive mechanisms involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma from maltreatment-survivor mothers to their toddler/preschool-aged children. This study investigated whether maternal trauma–related cognitions—posttrauma appraisals and disorganized memory for maltreatment—were associated with higher levels of toddler internalizing and externalizing symptoms and more dysfunction in the mother–child relationship. A community sample of mothers with histories of maltreatment and a child between the ages of 2 and 5 years was recruited for a study on maternal attachment, coping, and health (N = 113). Path analysis results showed that posttrauma appraisals and disorganized memory were significantly related to toddler internalizing symptoms, even with maternal trauma symptoms included in the model. Maternal posttrauma appraisals and disorganized memory were also linked to more dysfunction in the mother–child relationship. These findings provide preliminary evidence in support of maternal trauma–related cognitions as potential mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma.

Learning Objective: 3.7 Identify issues that face multigenerational families with infants and toddlers, 3.8 Give examples of risk factors and protective factors during infancy and toddlerhood, 3.9 Apply knowledge of infancy and toddlerhood to recommend guidelines for social work engagement, assessment, intervention, and evaluation


Journal Article 3.3: Geyer, C. & Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, I. (2017). The Relationship Between Maternal Domestic Violence and Infant and Toddlers’ Emotional Regulation: Highlighting the Need for Preventive Services. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 1-20.

Abstract: In an effort to further understand the impact of domestic violence (DV) on infant and toddlers’ development, this research utilized data from the second cohort of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II) to examine the relationship between maternal DV and infant and toddlers’ emotional regulation, and determine whether mothers’ receipt of DV services mediated this relationship. The sample was limited to children aged 0 to 3 years and included (a) infants less than 1 year old (n = 603), (b) infants 1 to less than 2 years old (n = 310), and (c) toddlers 2 to 3 years old (n = 268). Infant/toddlers’ emotional regulation was measured using mothers’ response on the How My Infant/Toddler/Child Usually Acts questionnaire. In addition, data were collected to assess whether (a) active DV was present during the time of the Child Protective Services (CPS) investigation and (b) mothers received DV services during the past year. Study research questions were examined using a series of multiple regression analyses. Mediation was tested based on Baron and Kenny’s recommended model for establishing mediation. The mediational model was not found to be significant; however, a positive relationship existed between maternal DV and emotional regulation among infants aged less than 1 year old (β = 1.61, p = .039). There were no statistically significant relationships between DV and emotional regulation in the other age groups. These findings highlight the need to provide CPS-involved families victimized by DV with services that focus on preventing poor infant emotional regulation.

Learning Objective: 3.3: Summarize typical physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development of infants and toddlers, 3.8 Give examples of risk factors and protective factors during infancy and toddlerhood.