Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, students should be able to

  • Propose conceptual, research, and statistical hypotheses
  • List and describe the steps we follow to test a null hypothesis
  • Discuss the implications of inferential error and statistical significance
  • List, define, and provide the probabilities associated with the two types of inferential error
  • Identify ways of increasing the power of the test of the null
  • Discuss the importance of effect size and estimate the effect size for a given test of the null
  • Describe the role of replication in research as it relates to power
  • Define external and internal validity and discuss the influence of confounding and extraneous variables on inferential statements, including how to control such variables