Learning Objectives

After finishing this chapter, you should be able to:

4.1 Summarize the influence of early English policing on policing and the increasing professionalization of policing in the United States over time.

4.2 Identify how the nature of policing in the United States has changed over time.

4.3 Evaluate the contributions of August Vollmer and the International Association of Chiefs of Police to policing in the United States.

4.4 Review the role of women people of color, and LGBTQ individuals in early policing.

4.5 Identify the sources and consequences of the unrest in policing during the 1960s and 1970s.