SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 1: Wright, T., & Goodstein, J. (2007). Character is not “dead” in management research: A review of individual character and organizational-level virtue. Journal of Management, 33, 928–958.
Abstract: We propose that strength of character is a potentially important organizational research topic, one that has been largely untapped in applied research. Character (ethos) refers to those inter-penetrable habitual qualities within individuals and applicable to organizations that constrain and lead them to desire and pursue personal and societal good. In our review, we first provide an initial conceptualization of character, partly by distinguishing it from virtue and values. Second, starting with the Old Testament, we examine how character has traditionally been considered across time and culture. Next, we discuss the extant research on strength of character and organizational virtue. We conclude with promising research directions involving individual character strength and organizational virtue.
Journal Article 2: Zhu, W., Riggio, R., Avollo, B., & Sosik, J. (2011). The effect of leadership on follower moral identity: Does transformational/transactional style make a difference? Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18, 150–163.
Abstract: The goal of this article is to study the effects of transformational versus transactional leadership behavior on how followers report their level of moral identity. Using field survey data (n = 672) and experimental data (n = 225), the authors found that transformational leadership and transactional leadership (including contingent reward and active management-by-exception) have a positive effect on priming follower moral identity. In addition, results also revealed that transformational leadership behavior has a larger positive effect on follower moral identity than transactional leadership. Furthermore, this study established the preliminary construct validity of a scale of moral identity. The theoretical implications, practical implications, and future research recommendations of these results are discussed