Learning Objectives

9.1 Discuss young children’s sense of initiative, self-concept, and self-esteem.

9.2 Discuss the development of emotional regulation and prosocial and aggressive behavior in early childhood.

9.3 Summarize styles of parenting and discipline and their associations with child outcomes.

9.4 Compare biological, cognitive, and contextual theoretical explanations of gender role development.

9.5 Discuss the range of forms play takes in early childhood and its influence on social development and relationships.