After reading this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
12.1 Understand how federal bureaucratic action involves many different agencies and evolves over time, often in response to lessons learned from past actions.
12.2 Name the key characteristics of bureaucratic organization and the theories that explain why bureaucratic organization happens.
12.3 Outline the historical development of the American federal bureaucracy.
12.4 Describe the structure of the federal bureaucracy, including executive branch agencies, cabinet departments, and regulatory bodies.
12.5 Describe the tools of bureaucratic control, oversight, and reform.