Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes for each chapter have been provided to help keep track of the key concepts you need to master in each chapter.

1. Identify the major groups of microbes found in different parts of the body

2. Describe the normal structure of the prokaryotes (single-celled microbes – bacteria)

3. Understand how the body acquires its microbiota (the microorganisms of a particular site) and how this varies in different parts of the body (intrapersonal) and between different people (interpersonal)

4. Discuss the importance of the normal flora in maintaining health of the human body and factors which may alter this flora

5. Consider potential implications of variations in the normal flora

6. Outline the implications for health of pathogenic microorganisms and the importance of appropriate use of antibiotics